Davenport, Iowa is located on the Mississippi River and Iowa's eastern border with Illinois. It is part of the Quad Cities metropolitan area which includes Moline and Rock Island, Illinois.
Davenport plans to use about $2,836,000 in Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) and HOME Investment Partnership grant funds on a variety of projects to improve the city's housing and community development. Economic development programs will include financial assistance and project support to businesses creating primary jobs and staff support for administration of a loan program. Another key goal is to assist in constructing a new neighborhood facility.
Housing funds will emphasize rehabilitation. Some funds will be used for a program that originates loans for the city's rehabilitation programs. The city will allocate funds to provide assistance to owner-occupied households to correct substandard conditions, improve energy efficiency, and make general improvements to homes. Relocation expenses will be provided to about 30 households displaced from their homes by code enforcement. A revolving loan fund will be used to purchase or rehabilitate property.
The Consolidated Plan process began with a series of four meetings during July 1994 to solicit citizen input in preparation of the plan. The city published a public notice in the Quad City Times on April 10, 1995 to notify the public that the draft Consolidated Plan and the draft Citizen Participation Plan were available for a 30-day comment period. Drafts of the Plan were available for public review from April 13th through May 12th at the Davenport Public Library and at City Hall.
MAP 1 depicts points of interest in the jurisdiction.
Davenport had, according to 1990 census data, 95,333 people, a decline from the 1980 figure of 103,264. In 1992 estimated population was 97,508. In 1990, 83,147 persons were white, 7,423 were black, 3,300 were Hispanic, 974 were Asian or Pacific Islander, 344 were Native American, and 145 were classified as "other."
The number of households declined by 2.5 percent, from 38,024 in 1980 to 37,069 in 1990. There were nearly twice as many owner as renter households in 1990. More than 90 percent of the households were white. At 6.6 percent of the households, blacks represented a distinct second in population proportion.
Median Family Income (MFI) of $32,611 in 1990 was below the national MFI of $35,939. Twenty-six percent of households had incomes 50 percent or below the MFI, and were defined as very low-income. Another 18 percent, with incomes 51 to 80 percent of MFI, were defined as low income. Of all the households, black and Asian/Pacific Islander households had the highest percentages of households in the very low-income category. Among the 4,457 female-headed householders, 43 percent had incomes below poverty level.
MAP 2 depicts points of interest and low-moderate income areas.
MAP 3 depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, and minority concentration levels.
MAP 4 depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, and unemployment levels.
New home construction in Davenport averaged more than $17 million per year for the five years ending June 30, 1994. During the last year, more than $21 million was invested in the construction of new homes and $8.4 million in home renovations. Although the number of new residential construction permits increased steadily in the last five years, the taxable value of these showed a decrease between 1990 and 1991. Since 1992 the taxable value has steadily increased.
Residential renovations have also increased in value. In 1994, 1,628 renovation permits were issued with a value of $8.4 million.
According to figures from the Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS), one-fourth of all households from all income ranges experienced some type of housing problem. Twenty-four percent experienced a housing cost burden of greater than 30 percent of household income. Renters are much more likely (42 percent) to have housing problems than are owners (15 percent), usually excess cost burden. While 21 percent of all renter households are considered to have a severe housing cost burden (greater than 50 percent), only 11 percent of owners experience the same.
Overcrowding is less of a problem. Approximately 2.5 percent of all renters and 1 percent of all homeowners indicated that their living unit was occupied by more than one person per room. However, nearly 25 percent of all large-family renter households were overcrowded. This problem is especially severe for households with incomes in the 0 to 50 percent of MFI range.
According to the 1992 CHAS, about one-third of occupied rental units were considered to be substandard. Most were considered suitable for rehabilitation. About one-tenth of the owner-occupied units were considered substandard and most were suitable for rehabilitation.
Davenport has 40,343 year-round housing units, according to the 1990 census. Most were occupied and only 8 percent were vacant. More than half were owner-occupied and about two-fifths were renter-occupied. According to the 1990 census, the vacancy rate for units for rent was about 9 percent. However, a January 1995 rental unit survey, by Ruhl and Ruhl Realtors, indicated a 2.8 percent rental unit vacancy rate. Units for sale have a vacancy rate of just over 1 percent.
Between 1980 and 1990, 2,184 building permits were issued. The average sale price of residential property through June of 1994 was $71,200. A Ruhl and Ruhl Relocation Report in November 1994 found that the real estate market for homes in the upper price ranges (between $150,000 to $280,000) has slowed in the Quad Cities. The same report has seen a drop in the inventory of available homes and condominiums. In 1990, 32 percent of rents were in the $300 to $399 range, compared to 9 percent in 1980.
The number of rental units by bedroom size that are affordable at various income levels are as follows:
0- to 1-Bedroom Units:
The average sales price of a home in Davenport was $54,400 in 1990, $64,700 in 1993, and $71,200 in 1994. The upper ranges of homes cost between $150,000 and $280,000. According to the Housing Opportunity Index, Davenport ranked 16th in the nation in terms of affordability. The Index measures the proportion of homes sold in a city that a family earning the median income could afford to buy and the ability of a typical family to purchase a home in that market. This indicates that even though the sales prices have increased during the last several years, the Davenport home ownership market is considered affordable compared to most of the rest of the nation.
The total number of homeless individuals and families assisted by the housing providers was 2,083. At any one time, there are about 402 homeless people in Davenport. The majority of homeless persons are white, followed by blacks and other minorities.
Davenport has several agencies that provide services and shelter for the homeless. John Lewis Coffee Shop, Inc. provides services and emergency shelter for men. The Salvation Army provides emergency shelter for families and women. Family Resources Domestic Violence Shelter provides emergency shelter for women and children as well as support services, legal advocacy, and counseling.
Valley Shelter Homes, Inc. provides temporary emergency shelter to children 9 to 17 years old. Neighborhood Place provides a transitional living program for families that includes job skill training, day care, advocacy, and support services. Humility of Mary Shelter provides transitional housing for single-parent families. Vera French Homeless Program provides outreach to the chronically mentally ill. A Woman's Place provides residence for women released from jail. Several agencies in Rock Island also provide services for homeless.
Some of the gaps the city has identified include lack of street outreach and lack of outreach for substance abusers. The city believes that specific services provided by various agencies need to be expanded including crisis prevention and intervention, job training and placement, family support, day care assistance, money management, living skills, and educational opportunities.
Davenport lacks transitional housing for the chemically dependent and transitional housing for women and families. There is also a need for quality, affordable, permanent housing in the Quad Cities and for specialized housing for the chronically mentally ill and those who are chemically dependent.
The city has 42 public housing units, 14 with 2 bedrooms and 28 with 3 or more bedrooms. It has 471 Section 8 Certificates and 87 Vouchers. There are 454 applicants are on the public housing waiting list for 2-bedroom units and 215 for 3-bedroom units, and 1,166 applicants waiting for Section 8 certificates and vouchers.
Davenport does not have many of the policies that have often been described as barriers to the production of affordable housing. Zoning is not exclusionary. Planned unit developments are allowed and zero lot line construction is permitted.
The main barriers are based on Federal and State regulations. Federal tax changes affect the investment in multi-family housing. Stringent requirements of the Section 8 program may deter landlords from participating in the program, thus affecting the number of rental units available.
A local policy designed to maintain the quality of units available through Section 8 program was mentioned by planning participants as a barrier to the landlord participation in the Section 8 program. Also mentioned were difficulty in obtaining loans for residential rental real estate, interest rates differentials between rental property and owner property, low return on investment in lower cost housing, and high costs of land and building materials.
Davenport is in the process of preparing an analysis of fair housing.
The Davenport 1990 census figures indicate that about 11,821 housing units constructed before 1940 may contain lead-based paint. About 7,564 units built between 1940 and 1959 and 9,211 built from 1960 to 1979 also could contain lead-based paint.
The city needs affordable ownership housing for people with disabilities. Only a quarter of the people with disabilities are in the workforce and their incomes usually are low. Few have opportunities to purchase a home.
About 146 people are HIV positive in the Quad Cities area. Half of these people and their families would benefit from some type of housing assistance in the next year. Of that number 10 to 15 percent would need supportive housing services.
From a series of four public input meetings, several nonhousing needs were
identified: increasing neighborhood safety through ordinance enforcement, faster
police response time, police presence in neighborhoods, programs to curtail gang
activities and improve race relations, and employment opportunities for youth.
Also needed are increased city services such as accessibility of bus service,
and updated infrastructure including storm, water, sewer systems, and traffic
Davenport has four local objectives:
Small-family households are the single largest category of renters in Davenport. Forty-five percent of this group fall in the very low-income. Within the next five years, the city plans to provide rental assistance and HOME-funded rental rehabilitation for small-family renters at various locations within Davenport. The city will do the same for large-family households and elderly renters.
Information gathered from local real estate agents indicates that new construction has been curbed and new construction of affordable housing is rare. Therefore, existing housing must be maintained. Many of the larger affordable housing units are older and need rehabilitation. The city plans to provide rehabilitation assistance for 460 low-income households in the next 5 years.
As interest rates rise, the cost of purchasing a home rises. Many of the first-time homebuyer families in the 0 to 80 percent MFI range have difficulty with down payments. Many of the houses that are affordable may require rehabilitation -- a cost these families simply cannot afford. To help increase the stock of affordable housing, the city's strategy includes having an acquisition and rehabilitation program for 50 houses in the next 5 years, providing rehabilitation assistance to 45 households, and promoting new construction of 23 affordable homes. The city also plans to provide homebuyer assistance to 43 households through a revolving loan fund.
The city proposes to offer the same programs to all other first-time homebuyers as well. Within the next 5 years it plans to provide homebuyer assistance to 31 households, home purchase and rehabilitation to 9 households, rehabilitation assistance to 40 households and acquisition and rehabilitation to 30 households.
Strategies for the homeless include providing outreach to homeless people and assessing their individual needs through various agencies in the city. Another strategy is to address the emergency shelter and transitional housing needs of homeless persons. In addition the city plans to use funds to assist in rehabilitating property for transitional housing and to assist in providing transitional housing and services. The city will help the homeless make the transition to permanent housing and independent living by providing assistance to agencies that run group homes for these individuals. The city will also work to prevent low-income families from becoming homeless.
In allocating funds for the plan, Davenport took into consideration the goals identified at the four public hearings, city council goals, and the statutory requirements. The city is focusing on three general areas: public services, economic development, and public facilities.
Programs contributing to the quality of life through public services include elderly care, gang prevention programs, and homeless shelters and programs.
The city hopes to create 2,000 primary jobs by the year 2000 and continue diversification of the economy while building upon its base of metal fabrication, food processing, and suppliers to local industry. Principal targets for the 5-year plan include printing, plastics, insurance, and the pharmaceuticals industries. The city's Office of Economic Development provides assistance to new and expanding businesses and requires that at least half of the jobs created are available to low- and moderate-income individuals. Job training is also provided by United Neighbor's Clean Team program and through the training program in the United Neighbor's Comprehensive Housing and Rehabilitation Program.
To reduce poverty the city is encouraging economic development activities that will provide jobs and a healthy economy. The city's CDBG Economic Development Program has been active in a variety of areas. Emphasis has been placed on loans to businesses employing or preserving jobs to very low- and low-income individuals and households. Davenport also will continue training primarily low- and moderate-income residents in construction rehabilitation skills through United Neighbors, Inc. The city will continue to encourage residents to participate in the Job Training Partnership Act programs that help people get employment.
The city will encourage all welfare recipients to move off welfare through Iowa's version of welfare reform called Promise JOBS. The program provides assessment, basic education, job seeking skills, skill training, job placement, and assistance with child care and transportation.
The city also has access to the Women's Bean Project which teaches lessons in small business and mainstream living to unskilled women workers. The mission is to provide employment and training to women who are homeless or living in poverty.
In addition to Federal CDBG, HOME, Section 8 resources, the city will provide funding for closing costs and down payment assistance through the DREAM program. City of Davenport funds will be used to provide loans for the Residential Exterior Improvement Loan program. No State funding is expected by the city during its FY 1996. Other private resources will be available from such entities as banks, businesses, foundations, and churches.
The city of Davenport Community Development Block Grant Administration is the lead agency for the Consolidated Plan, in coordination with the Office of Neighborhood Redevelopment, Office of Assisted Housing, Office of Housing and Environment Inspection, and the Department of Community and Economic Development. The city Housing and Neighborhood Development Division will work with nonprofit housing and service providers to improve and maintain communication. A staff member of Housing and Neighborhood Development serves as an advisory member of the Ecumenical Housing Development Corporation. City staff will continue to participate in forums and seminars related to issues involving housing and homelessness.
MAP 5 depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, unemployment levels, and proposed HUD funded projects.
MAP 6 is a map, sectioned by neighborhood, which depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, unemployment levels, and proposed HUD funded projects.
MAP 7 depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, unemployment levels, and proposed HUD funded projects within one of the four neighborhoods indicated in MAP 6.
MAP 8 depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, unemployment levels, and proposed HUD funded projects within another of the four neighborhoods indicated in MAP 6.
MAP 9 depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, unemployment levels, and proposed HUD funded project(s) from a street level vantage point; as well as, provides a table with information about the project(s).
Davenport plans to use about $2,836,000 entitlement grant funds and $300,000 program income on a variety of projects to improve the city's housing and community development needs. Some of the key projects include the following: