Green Bay, Wisconsin, is located at the mouth of the Fox River where it enters 75-mile long Green Bay, which extends out to Lake Michigan. This city of 96,000 is about 105 miles north of Milwaukee. Green Bay is the third largest city in Wisconsin and is the oldest city in the State. It is a regional center where many State and Federal agencies have branch offices. The economy is diverse and has been relatively stable despite shifting national economic trends.
In its Consolidated Plan Green Bay describes its housing and community development needs and priorities as well as a 5-year strategy for addressing these needs using Federal and other resources. For the first year of the plan, Green Bay is requesting $1,292,000 in Federal Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funds, and $601,000 in HOME Investment Partnership Program (HOME) funding. This money will be used to finance the 14 housing and community development and planning activities planned for Fiscal Year 1995-1996.
When preparing the Consolidated Plan, Green Bay made a deliberate effort to contact all "stakeholders," organizations, and knowledgeable persons who could provide useful opinions on effective ways to use the Federal program money the city receives. A survey was mailed to 320 of these key contacts.
A public hearing was held on September 21, 1994, to collect input from
citizens and to receive proposals for activities to include in the 1995 CDBG
program. There was a 30-day public review and comment period -- from November
15th to December 15th -- with copies of the draft Consolidated Plan available at
the public library and the Redevelopment Authority's offices. A final public
hearing was held December 8, 1994, to receive citizen comment on the draft plan.
Although Green Bay is an older city it is a growing community that is still attracting new residents because it provides a well-rounded living environment with a stable economy.
According to the 1990 census, the median family income (MFI) was $37,120. Of the 38,516 households in Green Bay, 46.8 percent have annual incomes of 80 percent or less of MFI. Census data show the following levels of low- and moderate-income households:
Racial and/or ethnic subpopulations among Green Bay's 96,466 residents include:
Between 1980 and 1990 Green Bay's total population increased by 10 percent,
from 87,899 to 96,466. The city's white population grew by 7 percent, while the
faster growing minority populations reached 6.3 percent of the total population
by 1990. The fastest growing minority subpopulation was that of Asian
American/Pacific Islanders, whose numbers rose by 221 percent, from 697 to
2,234. The African American population rose by 110 percent; the number of
Hispanics rose by 73 percent; and the number of Native American residents rose
by 44 percent during over the previous decade.
Reflecting a nationwide trend, Green Bay's older inner city is occupied primarily by lower income families. Maintaining inner-city housing stock presents a significant challenge for all those concerned with community planning and development.
Census data show that, in 1990, 863 housing units were overcrowded, revealing a discernible need for units with 3 or more bedrooms for larger families. Other housing needs include:
Green Bay's housing stock includes 21,710 owner-occupied units and 17,325 rental units. The city's housing supply also includes 691 mobile homes. The rental vacancy rate in 1990 was 4.1 percent with a 1 percent vacancy rate for non-rental housing. These low vacancy rates mean resale prices for existing homes remain steady.
Housing costs in 1990 were:
Construction costs are relatively low. New construction and rehabilitation of rental units can be done affordably.
A large proportion of lower income households are cost-burdened, paying more than 30 percent of their gross income for housing expenses, including utilities. Some are severely cost-burdened, paying more than 50 percent for housing expenses.
Of Green Bay's 5,373 extremely low-income households, 82 percent are cost-burdened, and 60 percent are severely cost-burdened. Of 4,952 very low-income households, 56 percent are cost-burdened, while 12 percent are severely cost-burdened.
There are about 249 homeless persons in Green Bay on a typical night, including 215 who are sheltered. This estimate is based upon monthly point-in-time surveys conducted by the Brown County Task Force on Homelessness between January and August 1993.
The 249 include 147 persons in 46 families with children and 102 adults (18 or older) who are not in families. Of this number 12 families with 23 members and 10 adult individuals were living in transitional housing. With the exception of one adult who remained unsheltered, the rest were served by Green Bay's network of emergency shelters. There is a growing need for shelter for families with children.
Subpopulations of the homeless with special needs were as follows:
In the city of Green Bay there are about 170 beds in 12 facilities serving the homeless.
Three facilities provide day shelters, soup kitchens, or pantries.
The Salvation Army has arranged for persons needing shelter or food after business hours to seek special vouchers from the police department. Types of vouchers include food, rental and utility assistance, clothing, diapers, perishable items, new and used shoes, transportation, gas assistance for work-related purposes, and emergency prescriptions.
The Housing Authority of Green Bay manages 156 housing units for the elderly or disabled and 50 family units. Section 8 rental assistance was provided for 2,264 units.
In addition there are privately owned subsidized housing projects with a total of 804 units for the elderly or persons with disabilities, 268 family units, and 14 units for persons with disabilities.
The Green Bay and Brown County Public Housing Authorities have a total of 520 families or individuals on their waiting lists for public housing units and Section 8 rental assistance.
Green Bay has no public policies that hinder the provision of affordable housing. Three areas that were reviewed include:
The Fox Valley Fair Housing Council has recently announced that its services will be available within Green Bay and Brown County. This announcement represents a significant step in the continued understanding of impediments to fair housing choice. Funding for conducting a series of seminars on fair housing compliance for housing providers is included in the 1995 CDBG allocations for the Brown County Fair Housing Task Force.
Use of lead-based paint was banned for residential use in 1979. Based on the age of housing it is estimated that Green Bay has 7,526 pre-1979 rental units and 10,061 pre- 1979 owner units that are occupied by lower income households and have potential lead- based paint problems. Older homes within the inner city are more likely to contain lead.
The Brown County Health Department reports screening 350 to 400 persons per year, primarily children, for lead poisoning. This number represents a slight increase over previous years. Twenty-five to 30 children tested had elevated levels of lead in their blood, but only 1 case had a very high level. The department considers lead-based paint a problem and teaches homeowners how to abate lead in their homes.
There are also housing and supportive needs for the elderly, mentally disabled, mentally ill, physically disabled, substance abusers, and victims of domestic violence. In general the needs of each group are similar for affordable and accessible housing, differing somewhat in supportive services requirements.
Green Bay's inventory of supportive housing for non-homeless persons with special needs includes:
Local service providers quantified the supportive housing needs of two groups:
Based upon a limited number of responses to a survey on community development needs, Green Bay summarizes residents' concerns as follows:
Green Bay's objectives are the elimination of slums and blight; eradication of conditions detrimental to health, safety, and public welfare; conservation and expansion of the housing stock; expansion and improvement in the quantity and quality of community services; restoration and preservation of properties of special value; and the alleviation of physical and economic distress.
Some elements of Green Bay's 5-year housing strategy are:
Green Bay's high-priority community development objectives include:
Green Bay's anti-poverty strategy includes housing and economic development approaches. Providing more decent and affordable housing units to the lowest income segments of the community will allow these households to concentrate on improving their financial situation. Efforts will include rehabilitation of rental and owner-occupied housing and providing rental assistance through Section 8 and HOME programs.
Job creation efforts of the city's economic development efforts will be targeted to the lowest income residents.
The financial resources to carry out the 5-year plan include the $1,893,000 in CDBG and HOME funds to be received this year. It is anticipated that similar levels of HUD community development and housing funds will be available to Green Bay during the remaining 4 years of the 5-year plan. Other funding available to help Green Bay implement its strategic plan include a variety of Federal and State programs.
Green Bay's Redevelopment Authority, Housing Authority, and the Brown County Housing Authority are all administered by one executive director. Housing programs are implemented by a shared staff.
Non-Housing community development projects requiring input of more than one city department will be coordinated by the Redevelopment Authority. Contracting and public works projects are coordinated by the Department of Public Works. Park activities will be handled by the Department of Parks, Recreation & Forestry. The Redevelopment Authority has primary responsibility for neighborhood projects and downtown redevelopment. Economic development efforts are handled by the Planning Department's Economic Development division.
City staff keep in touch with nonprofit groups through the Interagency
Council, the Brown County Task Force for the Homeless, United Way, and similar
For the 1995-1996 program year Green Bay plans to use $2,068,000 in CDBG, HOME, and program income funds for 14 activities to address specific housing, community development, and human services needs.
A total of $777,875 is allocated for housing, including:
A total of $840,000 is budgeted for community development efforts, including:
In addition some $200,000 in economic development monies will be added to the city's existing revolving fund for loans to for-profit businesses, creating jobs for city residents.
A total of $42,125 is budgeted in the public services category to hire a full-time liaison officer with translation skills to assist the police department in dealing with Hong-speaking residents.
Though many of these activities, including rehabilitation, will be conducted on a citywide basis, the city will give preference to projects located within low- and middle-income neighborhoods.
MAP 2 depicts points of interest and low-moderate income areas.
MAP 3 depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, and minority concentration levels.
MAP 4 depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, and unemployment levels.
MAP 5 depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, unemployment levels, and proposed HUD funded projects; in addition a table provides information abuot the project(s).