Madera was incorporated on March 27, 1907 and had a population of 2,404 in 1920. Over the next seven decades, the population increased steadily to 21,832 in 1980. The City's population is expected to grow substantially over the next ten to twenty years. In 2000, Madera is projected to have a population of 41,570, resulting in a 29.6 percent increase over 1990 figures. The projected 2010 population is 61,250, resulting in a 52.4 percent increase over 1990 figures.
The Madera Consolidated Plan proposes activities in the 1995 fiscal year to encourage conservation and rehabilitation of existing low income housing within the City. In addition, the City intends to utilize the CDBG grant of $860,000 for the construction of a senior/youth center, fair housing and a public service (crime awareness) activity.
The Housing Authority of the City of Madera was responsible for overseeing
the development of the Consolidated Plan. The City consulted with surrounding
entities and groups and agencies that participate in housing developments and
various types of community services in the City. In addition, consultation was
sought from City residents who would directly benefit from the various grant
programs addressed in the Consolidated Plan. Three public input meetings,
including an official public hearing before the Madera City Council, were
conducted on February 28, and March 1st and 2nd 1995 prior to drafting the
Consolidated Plan. These meetings were conducted in North, Central and South
Madera in order to provide convenient locations and times for optimum public
participation. An official public hearing was also held by the Madera City
Council on June 7, 1995, whereby the Consolidated Plan was adopted. All
meetings, hearings and review periods were noticed in the local Madera
newspaper. All public comments were included in the Consolidated Plan as an
Non-residential growth and change between 1980 and 1990 has been significant in both the commercial and industrial sectors. With an employment increase of almost 8,100 jobs during the decade, Madera has reached a milestone where many in the labor force now commute to Madera from other communities. This is a reversal from a long-standing pattern where the out-commute of residents to jobs in other communities was far greater that the in-commute.
One-third of Madera County's total wage and salary employment is attributable to agriculture. The importance of agriculture to Madera's economy is also reflected in the County's unemployment statistics. The unemployment rate in 1990 averaged 12.4 percent, while the State's unemployment rate averaged seven percent. This higher rate is one of the factors creating a lower income level for the County. The continuing high level of employment in farming activities in Madera will create an ongoing demand for housing to satisfy the needs of those employees.
Madera is actively seeking new industrial development. Availability of
City-owned sites, as well as private sites, promotional programs of the Madera
County Economic Development Commission, the Economic Development Committee of
the Chamber of Commerce, cooperative efforts of the Private Industry Council and
State Employment Development Department, and the overall joint efforts of public
and private sectors are expected to continue to attract new industries. These
efforts are critical to reducing the unemployment rates in Madera.
The continuing economic recession in California has been the recent trend to impact the City's housing market, slowing the pace of construction and putting a damper on escalating home prices. This has actually had some beneficial effects for affordable housing in the City. As sales activity has increased among lower cost homes, developer's interest in new affordable housing projects has increased. Lower interest rates have also increased developer's interest in housing, making home ownership more attractive to more people.
Age characteristics of the population are a major factor influencing housing need and demand. The youngest and oldest adults are the most likely to live alone or in small households. The broad middle-age spectrum, especially ages 30-55, are associated with families with children and living in single-family homes. The age group 20-44 is projected to continue to represent a large proportion of the City's total population. This trend will result in a continuing high demand for apartments and entry level housing units. Consequently, efforts should be focused at providing more affordable units and a greater range of neighborhood selections and housing opportunities.
The number of housing units in Madera rose from 8,231 in 1980 to 9,426 in 1990, representing a 14.5 percent increase. The single-family home on an individual lot was the most common type of housing, accounting for 70 percent of the overall housing stock. City-wide, the largest increase in the housing stock was in the number of renter-occupied units. Between 1980 to 1990, the number of renter-occupied units increased 46.5 percent, from 3,087 units to 4,522 units. The rate of increase for owner-occupied units rose by only 8.5 percent, from 4,272 units to 4,637 units. Also, notable is the proportion of rental- occupied to owner-occupied units. In 1980, 41.9 percent of the units were rental-occupied and 58.1 percent were owner-occupied. In 1990, the ratio was nearly equal: 49.43 percent were rental-occupied units and 50.6 were owner-occupied.
The cost of housing usually varies with age. New units tend to be above average in cost, while older units tend to be lower in cost. There are no major differences in the age patters of housing occupied by owners and renters. However, renters do, more commonly than owners, live in older housing, reflecting the fact that many of the older single-family homes are used as rentals.
There is a high correlation between income levels and the percentage of income spent for housing. Lower income households tend to pay a higher percentage of their income for housing, while higher income households tend to pay a lower percentage of their income for housing. Because persons in a lower income household pay a higher percentage of their income for housing, they typically have less money available for other essentials.
Affordability is the most widespread housing problem in California. Affordability problems occur when housing costs are so high in relation to income that households are required to pay excessive proportions of their income for housing, are unable to afford any housing, or are homeless. Housing affordability has many facets. To the homeless, it is the inability to afford any housing at all. To the lower income household, which has little money left over after paying for housing, it is the inability to afford other necessities. To the adequately housed renter who wants to own a home but cannot afford it, it is being able to achieve home ownership. To the new owner, who is heavily burdened with high mortgage payments, it is trying to make ends meet until household income rises.
The Shelter and Street Enumeration of the 1990 Census counted 38 people in shelter facilities in Madera and no persons in unsheltered conditions. However, this number is considered by many to be a gross under count of Madera's actual homeless population. It appears that based on the number of people waiting for Section 8 homeless assistance, staying in the homeless shelters, and using homeless vouchers, that this number is considerably higher.
Facilities and services for homeless people in Madera are primarily provided by the Madera County Action committee. In the City limits, the Madera County Action Committee operates two emergency shelter facilities, a transitional shelter facility, two transitional housing sites, and a motel voucher program. Madera County Action Committee programs are supported through a variety of state, federal, and local private funding sources.
The Madera Housing Authority operates Section 8 and public housing programs in Madera. Section 8 Rental certificate and voucher rental programs assist very low-income families in leasing privately-owned, decent, safe, and sanitary rental housing. According to the Madera Housing Authority, waiting lists at the end of March 1995 totaled 3,242, including:
The waiting period for each type of housing averages to about one to three years. However, this may not be true for farm labor housing even though the waiting list is not lengthy. It is more likely that farm laborers are not knowledgeable of opportunities for housing assistance nor are they eligible due to their legal status.
The Madera Housing Authority has a very active Resident Council that meets once a month. This Council has assisted the Housing Authority with several grant applications and provided input as to what is needed and desirable to improve and enhance the living environment of public housing. In addition, the authority has started to implement a resident training program to improve the economic development of its residents towards Self-Sufficiency Program to assist Public Housing families in obtaining upward mobility. This program is not designed for occupant ownership. Rather, it is designed to assist families in becoming homeowners in the private market. This approach enables the Authority to maintain its's public housing units and at the same time assist more families in upward mobility after they have successfully completed the Family Self-Sufficiency Program.
The City has identified public policies that may affect the provision of affordable housing and has undertaken an assessment of the extent to which the costs or incentives to develop, maintain, or improve affordable housing are affected by each of these public policies.
Governmental controls and regulations can constrain new residential development through the requirements they impose or the manner in which those requirements are enforced. The following are some examples.
The 1982 General Plan had two residential land use designations:
Staffing levels in the various departments responsible for development review are kept to a minimum and may result in an increase in the time for processing projects when the workload is heavy.
In addition, the City of Madera will undertake the following program to mitigate any negative effects that public policies may have upon the availability of affordable housing.
Also, the City proposes to create a local Advisory commission on regulatory barriers to affordable housing.
The City has allocated $5,000 in CDBG funds to supplement the objectives of the Fair Housing Act, by making persons, without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, family status, or handicap, aware of the range of housing opportunities available to them. Locally, the Madera/Fresno Housing Leadership Board is responsible for the execution of these objectives.
The City had identified various programs it will undertake over the next five years to evaluate and reduce lead-based paint hazards.
The City proposes to establish an expanded program in support of equal housing opportunity for all persons in Madera through enforcement of, and direct response to, all claims of unlawful practices prohibited by the Fair Housing Policy. Enforcement efforts would be strengthened by making violations of the policy subject to direct action on the part of the City.
Further implementation would be through a public awareness program and posting of advisory notices in English and Spanish, at various locations in public buildings and places of businesses. Information advising the public of the program, and the local administrator, would also be made available through the periodic newsletters published by the Parks and Community Services Department and at various public participation events.
The City has identified a priority need for a senior/youth center. CDBG funds will be used to construct the center. In addition, the City has identified a priority need for a crime awareness program. CDBG funds will be utilized to finance such a program in northeast Madera where the largest concentration of extremely low and low income resident's reside within the City.
In FY 1995, Madera will undertake the following implementing programs to enhance coordination between public and assisted housing providers and private and governmental health, mental health, and service agencies.
The City of Madera proposes to utilize available resources to meet its identified housing and community development needs.
The Madera Redevelopment Agency recently approved five private projects. These projects will provide a variety of housing opportunities, ranging from very low income units to senior citizen housing. For example, the 51-unit Sunrise Terrace Apartment Complex will provide 11 units for very low income households and 41 units for low income households for a period of 55 years. Through a joint venture between the Madera Redevelopment Agency, the Madera Housing Authority, and the Joaquin Valley Estates Corporation, three single- family units will be constructed specifically for very low income households.
Madera has identified several priority goals for housing activities, including, but not limited to, housing conservation and rehabilitation, new affordable housing construction, supportive housing for special needs groups, and housing affordability and assistance programs. For each priority, the City has identified policies and programs it will pursue in response to the needs.
Rehabilitation is a central strategy to maintaining the City's existing stock of affordable housing. Through renovations and additions, existing units can be modified and/or expanded to provide suitable housing at a much lower cost than new construction. These activities will help alleviate the current 18.9 percent incidence of overcrowding, most of which occurs in the older areas of the City, where there are large concentrations of low income, racial, and ethnic minority households and where the majority of the City's older housing stock is located. A January and February 1991 City survey of housing conditions identified 2,469 substandard housing units and units needing rehabilitation. Loss of these units from the City's housing stock would be detrimental to providing affordable housing because most of these units are located in areas with significant concentrations of low and very low income households. A City goal is to ensure the quality of affordable housing through the conservation and rehabilitation of the existing housing stock.
Madera will continue to work with private developers to construct affordable housing in the City. Through creative joint development projects, the City, through its Redevelopment Agency, will leverage its funds for the development of new affordable housing units. Funds for such projects may be targeted to land acquisition or write-down, equity participation, or low-interest financing in return for affordability guarantees. The City considers this an important mechanism for encouraging new construction of multi-family units and housing to meet the needs of special population groups.
New residential construction is a key strategy for expanding the stock of affordable housing in the City. The City has assigned the highest priority to new construction activities that meet the needs of low income families, large family households, farm workers, and non- homeless persons with special needs.
Overcrowding is of particular concern. Overcrowded conditions in owner-occupied units are being addressed by the City.
About 11.6 percent of lower income, owner-occupied households and 42 percent of lower income, renter-occupied households pay more than 30 percent of their income for housing, indicating a greater problem for renter households. New construction of rental units would afford greater choice for the moderate income persons. Public housing and subsidized units provided through the Housing Authority can best address the needs of lower income households who overpay for their housing.
There is also a shortage of housing units to meet the needs of larger family households with very low and low incomes. Through its new Affordable Housing Construction goal, the City intends to increase the stock of affordable housing for very low and low income households. In addition, the City will assure that an adequate number of sites are available for housing to meet the projected needs of all economic segments of the City.
The City will support efforts and programs to address the unmet supportive housing needs of its special population group (elderly, homeless, female-headed households, and farm labor families). Through its goal of supportive housing for special needs groups, the City will encourage construction of housing and facilities to meet special needs, including people with physical or mental disabilities.
As previously stated, the City will fund a Crime Awareness program that will add two additional police officers to a substation in northeast Madera. In addition, the City's existing senior centers are at capacity and there is currently no existing youth center. The City is committed to establishing a consolidated senior/youth center. The proposed center will provide a wide variety of activities by way of multi-purpose rooms which can be utilized by both groups either jointly or separately. The center will be conveniently located within the City to serve low to moderate income individuals without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, family status, or handicap.
In FY 1995, Madera will undertake the following implementing programs to reduce the number of households with incomes below the poverty level.
In addition to its CDBG entitlement grant, the City will utilize its General fund, gas tax revenues, fees associated with new construction, repayment funds from CDBG rehabilitation programs, private funding, and Madera Redevelopment Agency funds to meet its housing and community development priorities. The City will also continue to apply for State and other federal funds.
The City of Madera works closely with other housing related organizations
and service providers in the County to ensure that the housing needs of city
residents are addressed. The working relationship between the City and such
organizations (i.e., Madera Housing Authority, Madera Redevelopment Agency,
Madera County Action Committee, Madera County Planning, Public Health, Social
Services, Welfare, and Mental Health Departments, and the Madera Rescue Mission)
are strong. Due to the City's relatively small size, communication is usually
direct and immediate. As a result, gaps in program or service delivery are
typically not a result of poor institutional structure or lack of
intergovernmental cooperation, but rather due to short comings in available resources.
The key projects have previously been discussed and described (senior/youth center, crime awareness, and fair housing activities).
The fair housing and center will serve low and moderate income residents, city wide. The crime awareness project will be located in the northeast section of the City.
The City has designated the Housing Authority has the lead agency responsible for oversight.
The City's housing goals include providing affordable housing units. Allowing for vacancies and normal market removals, a total of 1,381 new units are needed by 1999 to house the projected households. However, allowance for construction needed to replace units which are beyond repair and/or are not economically feasible to repair are not included in this projection. Therefore, basic construction needs should be supplemented to allow for units not suitable for rehabilitation.
Proposed programs designed to assist the City in meeting its housing goals include, but are not limited to, using Redevelopment Agency housing set-aside funds for the purchase of sites for very low and low income housing. In addition, the establishment of a revolving loan fund to offer home down-payment assistance to qualified low income families is a possibility.
The City intends to continue to maintain Public Conventional Housing for
eligible families, handicapped, disabled, and elderly households of very low and
low incomes. Madera remains committed to continue to use subsidized housing to
provide quality homes for lower income households. Madera supports legislation
which creates funds for emergency shelters that include administration costs
and/or are of sufficient amounts that allow for action start-up and acquisition
emergency housing facilities. The City will continue to explore various funding
sources to promote housing rehabilitation throughout the community other than
The City will consider creating a low income housing trust fund to be used for a variety of low income housing projects.
MAP 2 depicts points of interest and low-moderate income areas.
MAP 3 depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, and minority concentration levels.
MAP 4 depicts points of interest, low-moderate income areas, and unemployment levels.
City of Madera
Phone: (209) 674-5695