With a total projected population of $1,213,000 as of January 1, 1996, the City of San Diego is the sixth largest city in the nation and the second largest city in California. Since, 1980, the City's population has increased by about 22,091 residents annually.
San Diego is a center for education and research, with both public and private colleges and universities in the City. The University of California at San Diego, (UCSD), San Diego State University (SDSU) and the University of San Diego (USD) are three major universities in the City. The City is also served by many community colleges which offer both academic courses and vocational training. Vocational courses are often customized to meet the special needs of area employers.
The City's economic base, which in the past relied on federal defense spending, has been transformed in recent years. The result is a new economic foundation based on four major areas: international trade, high tech manufacturing, professional services, and a tourism industry with a strong convention trade component. Each of these areas, which has continued to register growth despite the recession, provide the basis for the City's future economic growth.
The City's immediate proximity to Mexico has spurred the growth of international trade. This growth can be demonstrated by the development of an industrial complex located in the Otay Mesa area of the City next to the border. Many of the facilities in this complex are twin plants or "maquiladoras" with operations both in the U.S. and Mexico. These ties are further strengthened by the recognition of Tijuana as a sister city and the execution of a joint memorandum of understanding between the cities.
The City of San Diego is a focal point for tourism in the region. Major attractions located in the City include the world renowned San Diego Zoo, the San Diego Wild Animal Park, and Sea World. Other attractions include the Cabrillo National Monument on Point Loma; Balboa Park, a center of cultural and recreational activities, downtown's historic Gaslamp Quarter and Old Town State Park. San Diego's cruise ship industry is another important component of local tourism.
San Diego maintains a modern transportation which make it possible to travel from one end of the City to the other in less than 30 minutes. Five major freeways running north and south and five freeways running east and west serve the community. A light rail trolley system connects San Diego's downtown with outlying communities to the east and south. In terms of air travel, San Diego's International Airport at Lindbergh Field handled over 6 million arrivals in 1994.
The Consolidated Plan will provide the City with an opportunity to shape its programs into coordinated a five-year housing and community development strategy. The plan will (1) detail all of the City's affordable housing and economic development resources; (2) identify its priority needs; (3) establish its housing and community development objectives; and, (4) produce coordinated neighborhood and community objectives to revitalize those communities. The completed plan will also give City officials and citizens a better single view of San Diego's demographic, housing, and economic plans on a citywide basis.
The San Diego Consolidated Plan includes a one-year Action Plan for the expenditure of $19,977,780 in Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Funds (including $127,264 of program income) and $2,035,000 in Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) funds. The City will also use HOME and ESG funds to carry out activities.
A series of three public hearings were held on November 15, 16, and 17 to gather public input before beginning to develop the draft Consolidated Plan. Public Notices were placed in the City's major newspaper, as well as in two local newspapers. Articles also appeared in several local newspapers. Letters of invitation signed by the City Manager and Housing Commission Executive Director were sent to the mailing list of 1,300 individuals and organizations. Approximately 35 individuals representing community-based organizations, attended those hearings. In addition, all public housing residents were invited to a special meeting to gather comments regarding the public housing policy portion of the Consolidated Plan. Approximately 78 public housing residents attended that meeting provided a wealth of information. In 1995, two additional public meetings were held on January 26th and 30th to receive in regarding special housing needs for the mentally ill, disabled, drug abusers, and people with AIDS/HIV.
In additional to formal meetings held to generate the consolidated Plan, community meetings, workshops, and discussions have been ongoing. Although the specific content of the Plan was not discussed, the meetings did focus on the issues and situations that are addressed in the Plan, thereby providing some of the basis for the Plan's recommendations.
The completed draft Consolidated Plan was reviewed by the Housing Commission
Board on March 13th, and approved for distribution for a 30-day public comment
period, with an additional public hearing held in mid-April. On May 1, 1995, the
San Diego City Council approved the Consolidated Plan.
Income is one of the most important characteristics of housing need because it directly affects the range of housing prices and strongly influences housing affordability. Household income is also directly related to both housing tenure and type; as household income increases, the ratio of homeownership tends to increase. San Diego County's 1991 average annual pay of $24,998 is nine percent lower than the 1991 average annual pay of $27,499 for the State of California as a whole.
Many of San Diego's neighborhoods are reflections of its residents with
various cultural and economic groups living together harmoniously and sharing a
sense of community. However, San Diego, like other cities, also has areas which
are significantly concentrated with low income households and areas which are
significantly concentrated with minority households. There are 160,158 very low
and low-income households in the City of San Diego. Of that number, 19,012 are
African-American (non-hispanic) households; 34,652 are Hispanic (all races)
households; 1,143 are native American (non-Hispanic) households; 12,382 are
Asian & Pacific Islanders (non-Hispanic); and the remaining 92,960
low-income households are White (non-Hispanic). Low-income concentrated areas
have been exacerbated by the high cost of housing outside of these low-income
Total employment in San Diego County as of December 1993 was estimated at 1,135,300, a decrease of 2.6 percent since January 1990. This decrease reflects the recessionary economic conditions affecting California and the San Diego region between mid-1990 and the end of 1993. Nearly one-third of these were relatively high paying manufacturing jobs. During the same time period, total population increased by 5.9 percent, suggesting that employment growth is not keeping pace with population growth.
The City has determined that there is a need to develop rental housing, for sale housing, provide rental assistance and rehabilitate existing housing for low income residents.
The price reduction in single-family homes, as well as falling interest rates during most of the period 1990-94 has the effect of significantly increasing the affordability of single-family housing. Another contributing factor was the tendency of many financial institutions during this period to relax lending criteria in order to attract more first-time homebuyers.
The increase in the City's homeownership affordability rate could also be attributed in part to the recent availability of public funding for homeownership opportunities for low-income first-time homebuyers. In San Diego, this funding has come from a variety of sources such as redevelopment financing, local monies made available through the Housing Trust Fund, federal monies provided through the HOME Investment Partnership Program, and tax assistance channeled through the mortgage Credit Certificate Program.
Unfortunately, with recent increases in interest rates and housing prices on the rise, it is anticipated that affordability of single family homes in the city will decline again beginning in 1995.
According to the 1990 Census, about 61 percent of all rentals in San Diego were apartment units; the remainder were single-family homes and condominiums. Average rents in the San Diego region as of March 1994 were $521 for a studio, $586 for a 1-bedroom units, $700 for a 2-bedroom units, and $826 for a 3-bedroom unit.
Between 1989 and 1994, rents for one-bedroom units increased by 6 percent and rents for two bedroom units increased by 5.7 percent. At the same time. the Consumer price Index in San Diego increased by 20.6 percent. Between 1988 and 1991, the average annual pay in San Diego increased by 12.7 percent. Therefore, rents have not kept pace with either inflation or income. It appears that one positive benefit of the recession is that it has increased the affordability of rental housing, although affordability is still very much a problem for low- and very low-income renters.
The Housing Market Analysis indicates that 68,638 extremely low-and low-income households in San Diego are burdened by housing costs in excess of 30% of their household income. Of that number, 56,849 (or 83%) are renters. More than 47,000 of these total households (39,391 renters) pay more than 50% of their income to cover the cost of housing. The high cost of housing has a particularly severe impact on very low-income families who are left, following rent payment, with little disposable income to cover the costs of such vital items as food, clothing, health care, and transportation.
The San Diego Regional Task Force on the Homeless (RTFH) estimates that there are approximately 4,500 homeless persons in downtown San Diego, with another 550 to 600 homeless in the beach communities. The RTFH cites the following factors as the most common reasons for homelessness: inability to pay high rent; residence was demolished or condemned; inability to remain in former family household; mental illness or substance abuse; and ill health.
Shelters for the urban homeless take a variety of forms in San Diego. They range from emergency beds to transitional programs which combine housing with needed social services. In all, there are approximately 2,600 shelter beds serving the homeless in urban areas of the City. However, these beds only address 40 percent of the total need among the urban homeless population.
The Housing Commission owns and manages 1,609 residential units on approximately 165 scattered sites within the corporate limits of the City of San Diego. The following are the various housing programs the Commission administers on the scattered sites: Convention Public Housing (1,319; Section 8 New Construction (University Canyon) (120); State Rental Construction Housing Program (113); City-Owned Sites (23); Commissioned-Owned (no- subsidy) (6); Foreclosed Units (26); The vacancy rate is approximately 2 percent which is attributable to turnover time between tenants.
The San Diego Housing Commission is committed to increasing the involvement of its public housing residents in the management and operation of its public housing through the establishment of Resident Councils and employment of residents in the management and maintenance of its public housing sites. Also, the Commission is committed to improving the living environment of its public housing units by building partnerships with the City's Neighborhood Policing Teams and community organizations in the fight against gangs and drugs.
The Housing Commission receives federal funds through the Comprehensive Grant Program to enhance the quality of life at our public housing units and to improve the living environment of low-income families. The Housing Commission owned and managed units are maintained in excellent condition through the high standards of quality of the maintenance program, and supplemented by aggressive capital improvements and preventive maintenance programs. In order to determine the priority of physical needs, sites are inspected by the Housing Commission staff, resident meetings are held throughout the year to discuss management and physical needs, and maintenance records are reviewed. In FY 96, the Housing Commission will be completing capital improvements at 659 dwelling units. Repairs to 421 units will include items such as installation of security fencing gates, replacement of tile floor and carpets, landscape renovation, installation of security window guards/doors and removal of polybutelene piping. Major renovations will be performed at 238 units. This scope of work will include asbestos abatement, new windows, doors, floors, kitchens, bathrooms, stucco, site improvements, new refrigerators and stoves.
There are 8,306 Section 8 housing units, of which 2,209 are zero-to-one bedroom, 3,734 are two bedrooms, and 2,363 are three-or-more bedrooms. Thirty Section 8 vouchers are reserved for the Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing Program in FY 95. Clients are referred from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.
The City has reviewed the impact of both governmental and non-governmental constraints on housing development. Such governmental constraints as growth management policies and programs, community plans, land use plans and controls, building codes, development regulations and processing fees can all substantially affect the cost and availability of housing. In addition, numerous non-governmental factors affect the cost and availability of housing. The most important of these are the costs of financing, land, construction, and market speculation.
The City has adopted a number of policies designed to address the various constraints to development. In addition, the City is pursuing a number of programs geared toward implementation of these policies such as the Zoning Code Update, process 2000 (redesigning its permit processing system), accelerated processing of affordable housing projects, simplify its development and design regulation which impede production of affordable housing, companion unit ordinance, development permit tracking system, re- examination of public facility standards, impact fees modification, master environmental assessments and community planning group training program.
The City recognizes the importance of equal opportunity and fair housing policy, and attempts to reach out to all racial segments of the community through water bills, for example, to educate both tenants and landlords as to the rights and responsibilities provided through the Fair Housing Laws. Individuals and organizations doing business with the Housing Commission are provided with information regarding Fair Housing rights and responsibilities, and they are required to stipulate that they are familiar with those rights and responsibilities. Fair Housing training workshops are provided to property managers, in conjunction with the Fair Housing Council.
As a recipient of CDBG funds, the City is required to develop a proactive fair housing program. The program must include specific actions and procedures that will have a significant impact on preventing, reducing or eliminating housing discrimination and other barriers to equal housing opportunity based on race, color, religion, sex, family status, disability or national origin.
On January 12, 1989, the Housing Commission Board accepted the fair Housing Assessment which recommended that the Commission contract with a non-profit fair housing organization. Beginning in July 1989, the Housing Commission has authorized $80,000 to $88,000 each year for operation of the fair Housing Council. The Fair Housing Council performs fair housing activities, on an annual basis, for the San Diego Housing Commission and the City of San Diego which includes but is not limited to: (1) education and outreach activities; (2) activities concerning fair housing complaints; (3) administrative activities; (4) activities involving other agencies.
The Fair Housing Council has effectively performed its contract with the Housing Commission and has gained respect as an important force for fair housing in San Diego. The Council also continues to pursue funding from other sources such as the HUD Fair Housing Initiates Program (FHIP), foundations, membership fees and training fees. The Council also has a contract with the City of Chula Vista. The City also supports and participates in the Community Housing Resource Board (CHRB) which oversees the Voluntary Affirmative Marketing Agreement between HUD and the building industry. In addition, the City and County of San Diego jointly fund the Reinvestment task Force which monitors the lending practices of banking institutions and develops and implements strategies to increase diversity in home loan lending and to increase financing in areas of the community that are experiencing decline.
The City has fully integrated lead-based paint awareness and abatement into its affordable housing programs. Each tenant, landlord, and homeowner is informed of the dangers, symptoms, testing and treatment, and prevention of lead-based paint poisoning. Lead-based paint hazard abatement is provided for in each and every rehabilitation loan process. Public housing units, and units acquired by non-profit through Housing Commission programs, are abated of lead-based paint hazard at the point of acquisition.
The City has conducted a variety of needs assessments and surveys. City residents expressed the need to address the growing problem of youth violence. Physical maintenance of the neighborhoods was a high priority including law enforcement, graffiti, abandoned houses, maintenance of rental housing, trash and litter clean-up and the immediate arrest of persons openly using drugs. The highest priority was on physical maintenance-specific blighting conditions related to building condition, property condition, safety issues, noise pollution, access for the disabled, building code violations and age and obsolescence. Survey results cited inadequate public improvements, such as lack of open space for recreational purposes, an overburdened traffic system and inadequate library and school facilities.
The San Diego Housing Commission is responsible for preparing the City's
The mission of the Livable Neighborhoods Initiative is to create livable neighborhoods in partnership with residents, businesses, and community organizations through:
In accordance with San Diego's Balanced Communities Policy, housing assistance can generally be provided throughout the City. Homeownership activities, preservation of at-risk affordable housing, rehabilitation of owner-occupied and rental housing, and mixed-income rental housing acquisition and development will occur in all areas exhibiting need subject to program guidelines.
The City will pursue development or acquisition of multifamily housing, where most units are restricted by occupant income, in minimally concentrated areas of low-income households as a first priority; areas concentrated with low-income households as a second priority; concentrated areas of low-income as a third priority; and highly concentrated areas only as the lowest priority. The City will sanction development and acquisition of such housing under limited circumstances, such as in cases having strong community support or where there is an overriding need that cannot be satisfied in areas without such concentration.
Site selection guidelines established by the Housing Commission will ensure that all units are built or acquired in areas of the City where sufficient services such as schools, health care, transportation and recreational centers are available.
The City's program for housing the homeless has two components: emergency shelter facilities and transitional shelter facilities. Emergency shelter facilities are subcategorized into three types: intermittent spaces (available only during periods of cold or inclement weather); vouchers (to pay for homeless persons to stay in commercial hotels/motels, particularly in beach communities); and ongoing night shelters (available year round).
Activities will also focus on other special needs groups such as the AIDS Population, persons with physical disabilities, persons with mental illnesses, persons with developmental disabilities, elderly and frail elderly, persons with Tuberculosis, persons with Alcohol and other drug problems and farm workers.
Since 1991, the City has acted on systemic changes focused on long-term resolutions for the homeless. These actions have included the creation of the position of City Homeless coordinator, establishment of the Homeless advisory Committee, and the drafting of a comprehensive Homeless Policy. according to the draft policy, these efforts emphasize building strong collaboration which reinforces the City's intent to "coordinate business, social services and community groups to continually assess the needs of the community and to promote programs which stabilize those at risk of becoming homeless and which restore the homeless to optimum participation in the community".
The City has developed a Neighborhood Policing Program to address the problems of youth violence. This program is guided by the concepts of a shared responsibility and connection between the police and the community in making the City a safer and more livable city, better police-citizen communication and officer's who know the community's problems.
In December 1994, the Mayor established the Renaissance Commission and the Renaissance Project designed to stimulate and direct the City's efforts to foster truly livable neighborhoods. The Commission will create a strategy for revitalizing the City's older urban neighborhoods and incorporating ongoing community development initiatives, including Livable Neighborhoods, Neighborhood Pride and Protection, Neighborhood Service Centers, and Defensible Space, conduct neighborhood workshops, identify private resources, study national models of community participation. The Commission will also coordinate activities of community-based organizations to achieve greater focus and impact and eliminate duplication.
The City also envisions a new approach to how the City of San Diego interacts with and provides services to its neighborhoods. Livable Neighborhoods emphasizes a comprehensive approach to community issues. City staff and functions will be organized around mission, rather than along departmental or disciplinary lines. This approach involves the City's acceptance of more responsibility for coordinating and working with its neighborhoods.
Livable Neighborhoods leverages community resources, organizations and volunteers to enable them to take on community problems with City assistance. By incorporating a systems approach, the City will bring schools, job training providers, social service providers, and non-profit organizations into partnerships with the communities. The City will use technology and other means available to leverage community resources so that the pie will be expanded, rather than diminished, through more effective use of the resources at hand. A team structure has been established in each community to support citizen and community organization empowerment by identifying community concerns, teaching individuals where and how to obtain public services, identifying volunteer resources and coordinating delivery of City services. Activities will provide for safer streets, increased employment opportunity, education for the future, enhanced cultural equity and diversity, business creation and access to capital.
San Diego also has two State of California designated Enterprise Zones. This program incorporates a job referral service that connects low-income unemployed persons receiving job training with employers. In addition, the program serves as a mechanism to focus business development and technical assistance activities in an area of recognized need through partnership with more than twenty organizations. Activities include: commercial and neighborhood revitalization, international trade program, economic development through the Office of Small Business, Banker's Small Business CDC.
The City, through its Housing Commission, operates a variety of resident empowerment programs which promote upward mobility and self-sufficiency through educational programs, neighborhood programs, cultural and recreational programs, job training and skills development programs. The Family Self-Sufficiency Program (FSS), in collaboration with community businesses and City entities, provides supportive services to assist families in achieving upward mobility and self-sufficiency. The program includes career counseling, vocational training, and micro-small business development. In addition, resource information for child care and transportation is provided, along with an escrow account for a portion of income earned during program participation.
An addition to the Resident Services program is HUD's Youth Build program which will create apprenticeships at public housing construction sites. The goals of the Housing Commission include assisting those earning 50%-or-less of the median area income as the highest priority; forging partnerships among public, non-profit, and private entities to provide housing opportunities and providing an integrated range of social services for segments of the community not adequately served.
The Community Services Program of the City is responsible for assisting city residents in need of human care services. Those services are provided by staff who conduct periodic assessments of community needs. The staff then plans, administers, and monitors community projects. The community Services Program includes Youth Services, which provides coordination of youth-oriented services within the City departments and with outside community agencies; Child Care Services, which provides coordination of child care services for City and private sector employees; The Community Programs, which include social service programs and community improvement projects; Disability Services, which provides coordination of strategies and initiatives designed to assist persons with disabilities; and Homeless Services, which coordination of policies and initiatives designed to assist the homeless community.
The City expects to carry out much of its strategy through public and private partnerships which it seeks to encourage. Thus far, these partnerships have been very instrumental in the effort to meet the wide range of homeless and affordable housing needs in the City. In the future, to the extent feasible, the public sector will continue to match or augment private sources of funding from non-profits seeking to create affordable housing opportunities. In addition, through the Density Bonus Program and other mechanisms, it will pursue mixed- income projects with private for-profit developers. It will also assist non-profits in the area of capacity building so that those non-profits are able to gain the technical expertise needed to develop and manage affordable housing.
The San Diego Housing Commission will continue to coordinate the strategic
A total of approximately $28 million is available for the following projects through the HUD formula programs that have been consolidated into this single plan.
MAP 2 depicts points of interest and low-moderate income areas.
MAP 3 depicts low-moderate income areas and minority concentration levels.
MAP 4 depicts low-moderate income areas and unemployment levels.
MAP 5 depicts low-moderate income areas and proposed HUD funded projects.
MAP 6 depicts proposed HUD funded projects at street level for one neighborhood.
MAP 7 depicts proposed HUD funded projects at street level for one neighborhood.
MAP 8 depicts Empowerment Zones\Enterprise Community information.
MAP 9 depicts Empowerment Zones\Enterprise Community information.
MAP 10 depicts Empowerment Zones\Enterprise Community information.
MAP 11 depicts Empowerment Zones\Enterprise Community information.
TABLE (without associated map) provides information about the project(s).
San Diego Housing Commission