WHAT IS THE CONSOLIDATED PLAN? The Consolidated Plan outlines a community's strategy for addressing its housing needs and is a prerequisite for federal housing funding. In an effort to streamline federal applications and procedures, the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) requires that cities annually combine the following federal documents into one submission called the Consolidated Plan:
Plan Contents -- The preparation of the Consolidated Plan is guided by the following three major commitments and priorities expressed by HUD:
Citizen Participation Process -- The City held twelve hearings on the Plan,
including two before the full City Council. Hearings were noticed in local
newspapers of general circulation, and individual organizations and agencies
were mailed invitations directly for each of the meetings. Notices and flyers
were also translated into several languages to ensure the broadest
Determining the exact affordable housing need is difficult because different agencies with jurisdiction over the City of San José's housing programs describe "need" in several different ways. The figure that the Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) projects represents the local jurisdiction's share of what the State believes the growth will be over the next five years. It includes the number of units at all income levels that a jurisdiction is expected to be able to accommodate or absorb during a given time period. It is not the number of units that a jurisdiction is expected to build. The following table describes ABAG's current housing "need" figures for San José.
|0-50% of Median Income||51-80%||81-120%||120%+||Total|
According to the Census, 21% of the City's households are considered Extremely Low Income or Low Income. The vast majority of households, however, are considered above moderate income -- those households earning more than 95% of the median, according to HUD's definition for use with this Consolidated Plan. Compared with the City as whole, Hispanics tend to be poorer, as are African-American households and Native American households. Asian/Pacific Islanders and Whites tend to have slightly higher incomes.
District 3 and District 5 appear to have the highest concentrations of lower-income households, corresponding roughly to the areas in which there are high concentrations of Hispanic households. It should be noted that, in general, areas where there are concentrations of Asian/Pacific Islander persons do not correspond to areas where there are concentrations of lower-income households.
In general, "affordable housing" is that in which a household pays no more than 30% of its income for housing, including utility costs. There are probably between 20,000 and 30,000 households who are at risk of becoming homeless, based on available data from the 1990 Census.
According to HUD, about 24% of all renters live in overcrowded conditions, while 8% of owners are overcrowded. This translates into about 38,000 households, using the Census standard of one person per room. The definition used in the 1988 Housing Needs Assessment, however, took into consideration household characteristics such as the age and gender of dependents and showed there are about 17,000 overcrowded households. The actual number is probably between the two figures, or about 27,500 overcrowded households.
The County Housing Authority recently updated its waiting list for assisted housing and currently identifies about 5,858 seniors or disabled persons and 852 families (total: 6,710 households) waiting for assistance; about 50 households are turned away each day. The average length of waiting is between five and fifteen years.
A survey of homeless persons in January 1995 for the 1,149 homeless individuals interviewed, the following characteristics were found:
Prorated to San José, there were about 1,100 people without shelter in the City at the time the survey was taken. Prorated annually, there were a total of about 10,400 people who experienced an episode of homelessness during FY93/94 in San José. This does not mean that 16,300 people in the County (or 10,400 people in the City) were homeless for the entire year, but rather that they had some period of homelessness in their lives, from less than a month to more than a year.
A 1989 report on seniors, updated in 1994 and entitled Coming of Age: A Profile of the Older Population of the City of San José, found that housing for older adults at all levels of health and independence remains a serious need in Santa Clara County. For seniors with higher incomes, options for private, group or supported housing are plentiful in the County, but for the majority of older adults housing options are few.
There is an absence of reliable data on persons with disabilities living in San José; nearly all of the current information available pertains to persons with physical disabilities only. The 1990 Census data indicate that there are 47,191 mobility-impaired persons over the age of 16, of which 31,829 persons are not in the labor force. By applying the growth rate in the number of disabled households paying more than 30% of their income on housing costs between 1980 (19,160 households) and 1987 (22,035 households), there are probably about 23,300 disabled households paying more than 30% of their income on housing .
Based on available health service data, there are estimated to be
approximately 7,000 HIV+ persons in Santa Clara County. In addition,
the Health Department in Santa Clara County reported about 2,000 cases of AIDS
by the end of 1994. Mortality rates have improved over the past several years,
and the overall number of new cases of AIDS declined in 1994. The largest
number of AIDS cases currently occur in the 30-39 year age group. Although
service providers currently project a need to provide an additional 80 beds
for HIV-infected persons, they indicate that as individuals are living
longer with HIV and AIDS, the need for housing will continue to grow faster than what service groups are able to provide. According to the AIDS/HIV
Community Services Plan, 10%-15% of the homeless population is
There are probably about 30,000 substandard units in San José, of which probably 30% will require substantial rehabilitation (using the federal definition of more than $25,000 of rehabilitation per unit), or about 9,000 units. An additional 3% will probably need to be replaced completely, or about 900 units.
As of October 1994, San José represented the eighth least affordable housing market in the country, defined as the percentage of homes sold that were within the reach of the median income household at the prevailing mortgage interest rate. The median selling price for a single-family detached residence in San José as of July 1994 was $215,000 (as compared to $216,750 in July of 1993, a drop of 0.8%).
There are an estimated 10,000 to 13,000 assisted units in San José. From 1981 to the end of FY93/94, the City has financed 4,776 units of affordable housing through the use of 20% Housing Funds. Over 400 shelter beds have been funded in this same time period. The City's total funding commitment for these units represents over $161 million in City housing funds ($127 million and 3,965 units of which have been funded in the last five years alone).
An additional 480 affordable units have been funded through mortgage revenue bonds, and 1,650 households received assistance through the Mortgage Credit Certificate program in FY93/94 alone. There are also about 2,034 federally-funded units in 12 projects, the majority of which are subsidized through the Section 202, 221, or 236 programs.
Lower-income households are additionally assisted by the Housing Authority under the Section 8 rental assistance program. The Authority currently assists, under Section 8 contracts, 6,002 house holds in San José.
The Housing Authority of the County of Santa Clara currently owns and manages another 245 conventional public housing units.
In Santa Clara County, there are 689 permanent shelter beds and 590 seasonal
beds. Approximately 73% of the County's permanent shelter beds (504) and about
59% of the seasonal beds (350) are located within the boundaries of San José
(for both types of beds combined, San José has about 67% of the total
shelter beds available in the County). Many of the meal programs for the
homeless and near-homeless are also located in the City. All emergency shelters
in San José continually run at or near capacity, with many maintaining
waiting lists. There are currently about 372 transitional housing beds
available in San José, representing 80% of the County-wide
In 1989, the Mayor's Task Force on Housing's Final Report outlined the following City housing policy goals now incorporated into this Consolidated Plan:
Goal 1: Increase the supply of affordable housing, preserve the housing stock, and reduce the cost of developing affordable housing.
Goal 2: Utilize available resources to address priority needs for housing.
Goal 3: Increase the funds available for the preservation and development of affordable housing.
Goal 4: Disperse low-income housing throughout the City, to avoid concentrations of low-income households and to encourage racial and economic integration.
Goal 5: Encourage greater involvement of public and private sectors to increase and preserve the stock of affordable housing in San José.
Based on the City's analysis of Census data and other material, the City has concluded that the primary housing concern to be addressed is the needs of larger households, especially renter ELI and LI (0-50% of median) households, for whom relatively few affordable housing options exist. Large families have a greater difficulty in meeting their housing needs because of the lack of large (3+ bedrooms) subsidized or market-rate units in the City's rental housing inventory.
The following table illustrates the Five-Year Production Goals proposed for the Strategic Plan, which proposes a goal of 3,582 to 5,250 units, allocated by income group according to the City's policy. This includes the goal of 2,832 to 4,250 units of new construction and 750 to 1,000 rehabilitated units. Within each income range, production goals are further refined for various household types.
% COMMITMENT OF|
CITY HOUSING $
|TOTAL UNIT GOALS||
0-50% of Median (ELI/LI)|
51-63% of Median (MOD)
63-120% of Median (MIDDLE)
2,217 to 3,240|
940 to 1,372
425 to 638
1,699 to 2,550|
708 to 1,062
425 to 638
518 to 690|
232 to 310
|TOTAL||100%||3,582 to 5,250||2,832 to 4,250||750 to 1,000|
|RESOURCE ALLOCATION POLICY||EXPANDED HOUSING PROGRAM UNIT GOALS|
2,832 to 4,250|
750 to 1,000
|TOTAL||100%||3,582 to 5,250|
0-50% of Median (ELI/LI) (2,217-3,240 Units)|
(60% of Total City Housing Funds)
51-63% of Median (MOD) (940-1,372 Units)|
(25% of Total City Housing Funds)
63-100% of Median (MIDDLE) (512 - 1,178 Units)|
(15% of Total City Housing Funds)
The complex problems facing homeless people are many and varied. In the urban areas of Santa Clara County, local jurisdictions work together to provide Continuum of Care, prevention services, emergency shelter system with outreach and assessment, transitional housing with support services, and permanent housing. Strengthening the Continuum of Care activities at a regional level more effectively addresses the needs of homeless people in the community, avoids duplication of services, and increases cost effectiveness.
Despite this regional approach, there are not enough shelter beds or services to assist the homeless. The primary problem, like that of affordable housing in general, is the lack of available funding. According to the findings of the January 1995 survey of the homeless, the region continues to need additional transitional and permanent housing options, as well as additional emergency shelter beds with adjunct case management, alcohol and drug, and mental health services. Further, employment and training agencies need to be closely linked to transitional and permanent housing programs for homeless people. Towards this end, during the next cycle for federal funding for homeless programs, the regional emphasis will be on developing proposals that link housing with employment and training, as well as support services.
City funds leveraged with State and federal dollars assist families, seniors, and persons with disabilities. Other programs and services include the provision of rental assistance to AFDC families facing eviction, and coordination of Santa Clara County social service agencies with other support services to homeless persons.
In early 1993, the City Council approved the establishment of a $1.9 million Housing and Homeless Fund (comprised of unrestricted housing funds), the purpose of which is to provide financial assistance to non-profit organizations that seek to improve, increase or preserve the affordable hous ing stock and/or to improve the living conditions of lower-income persons.
Prevention services are funded through the County-wide Emergency Assistance Network (EAN) that assists at-risk populations by providing rental/mortgage assistance, utilities assistance, and food and clothing. A pilot program to provide this type of support for seniors is operated by the County, called the Council on Aging's Multi-Service Senior Program.
Emergency Shelters -- When the three armories in the County are permanently closed in 1997 (as currently scheduled by the Governor), the County will have lost 590 emergency shelter beds. To address this concern, the entitlement jurisdictions in the County and the County of Santa Clara have been working to replace the beds lost in the armories. Although a site for a replacement facility has not been established, the City Council of San José has convened a City Council Working Group that is developing shelter size and location criteria for such a facility. The Working Group will also attempt to identify appropriate geographic areas and possible sites suitable for emergency shelters.
Transitional Housing, Independent Living, and Related Services: Many special needs populations have in common a need for transitional housing, which provides them with housing while they seek permanent housing, and remedial services such as job training, legal assistance, mental health counseling, and other healthcare-related needs. The County's Continuum of Care efforts will pay particular attention to the needs of families and runaway homeless youth. The City will continue to fund additional transitional housing and individual living opportunities for the homeless, those at risk of homelessness, and other special needs groups identified in the needs assessment through its targeted Notices of Funding Availability (NOFAs).
At-Risk Persons: The City will continue to pursue affordable housing options for at-risk groups, including SRO development and eviction prevention programs in conjunction with service providers. SROs form an important source of housing for lower-income households, especially those at the very lowest income levels. To reach the very lowest income levels would require very deep subsidies; however, such deep subsidies would take place at the expense of additional housing development. Therefore, the City will continue to consider SRO projects in combination with other types of housing in the overall context of increasing the supply of affordable housing.
Supportive Facilities: Although HUD funding emphasizes more service components than before, it is still primarily restricted to rent subsidies and financing for housing rehabilitation or new construction. The City's 20% Housing Funds cannot be used to fund facilities or operating costs for such services as daycare centers for children and seniors, and programs such as job training, legal assistance, and mental health counseling. The City does give priority to projects which incorporate these types of facilities and services where appropriate.
The Santa Clara County Collaborative on Housing and Homeless Issues, of which the City is an active member, was created two years ago to draw more funding for homeless shelters, services, and to create more affordable housing. The Collaborative includes over 120 shelter providers, service providers, advocates, non-profit housing developers, and local government officials united to find ways to increasing housing and service opportunities for homeless people. It is actively participating in the design of the Bay Area Innovative Initiative Program, which will determine how the $7 million awarded by HUD to the Bay Area as a whole will be allocated.
The City will continue to provide funding for this subgroup, including funds for new construction and acquisition/rehabilitation projects.
The City will continue to address the housing needs of lower-income seniors and frail seniors by promoting additional rental subsidies and supporting moderate and substantial rehabilitation projects, particularly of single family dwellings. The City will also encourage the development of group living arrangements for seniors not in need of extensive care to assist them in remaining in more traditional housing longer.
The City will continue to seek opportunities for additional housing to
address this population. For the first time, the City received funding through
the Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS (HOPWA) program, and is currently
in the process of developing a strategy for the allocation of these funds. To
this end, the City will be meeting with the other jurisdictions in the County to
establish a metropolitan-wide approach to the disposition of funds, with the
anticipated result that a percentage of the funds will be used for permanent
housing and the balance devoted to support services.
The purpose of San José's Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program from July 1, 1995 to June 30, 1996 is to implement housing and community development projects throughout the city. The City's CDBG objectives are to principally benefit low and moderate-income persons and to eliminate or prevent slums and blight. These objectives emphasize enhancement of traditional City services by providing improved services and facilities for low and moderate-income persons and by an emphasis on capital improvements, code enforcement, building rehabilitation, housing services and services to seniors, youth and special populations.
Priorities for program funding were established after public input from two
public forums and a formal public hearing on needs. The extent to which a
project met community needs was the most heavily weighted criterion in the
funding process. An estimate of needs by category is included in the attached
table. Due to a shortage of information in this detail, estimates of funding
needs are primarily based on projections made from requests.
A summary of the anticipated allocation of federal funds is attached. The following table highlights the anticipated amounts of funding for FY95/96.
|Funding Source||Amount Expected to be Received by Jurisdiction ($000s)||Amount Expected to be Received by Other Entities ($000s)|
|A. Formula/Entitlement Programs|
|Public Housing Comprehensive Grant||$1,347|
|Subtotal -- Formula Programs||$19,552||$1,347|
|B. Competitive Programs|
|Shelter Plus Care||$1,000|
|Moderate Rehab SRO||$1,355|
|Public Housing CIAP||$0|
|Lead-Based Paint Abatement||$4,900|
|Special Needs Assistance||$0||$900|
|RRP (loan repayments)||$275||$0|
|Mortgage Credit Certificates||$0||$16,500|
|Subtotal Competitive Programs||$6,975||$86,557|
|Total - Federal||$26,527||$87,904|
|Total - State||$450||$9,113|
|Tax Increment Loan Repayments||$5,000||$0|
|Housing and Homeless Fund||$200||$0|
|Total - Local||$55,200||$0|
|Conventional Construction Financing||$0||$80,000|
|Conventional Permanent Financing (including SAMCO/CCRC)||$0||$77,200|
|Total - Private||$0||$159,070|
HOPWA FUNDS -- $601,000 to be distributed among housing and service providers in a ratio of 29% ($171,491) for rental assistance, 33% ($198,527) for support services, and 38% for operating costs and administration ($230,982).
EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANT FUNDS -- $366,000, to be allocated 70% for shelter operating costs ($256,200) and 30% for support services ($109,800). Up to 20% of the funds to be set aside for the County's Cold Weather Shelter Program at the National Guard Armory. Remaining funds available to existing shelters, day care centers, and homeless service providers.
HOME PROGRAM FUNDS -- $1,803,400 of the total $3,226,000 for new construction of rental units for Extremely Low-Income and Low-Income large families (3+ bedroom units) and other special needs populations. $1,100,000 million for moderate rehabilitation of ownership properties for Extremely Low-Income and Low-Income households in conjunction with the City's neighborhood revitalization efforts. Ten percent (or $322,600) for planning and administrative costs, including up to 5% ($161,300) for administering HOME funds, and up to 5% (or $161,300) for CHDO operating expenses.
PRODUCTION OF HOUSING -- Using the federal funds described above in conjunction with the City's 20% Low and Moderate Income Fund (local tax increments funds) and a variety of other funds, the City expects to fund construction or acquisition/rehabilitation of 753 new units affordable to Extremely Low-Income, Low-Income, Moderate-Income; and Middle-Income households; rehabilitation of 175 existing units occupied by Extremely Low-Income, Low-Income, and Moderate-Income homeowners; funding for 280 shelter beds; and funding of 500 paint grants. The following table highlights the production goals:
|Priority||Priority Group||Type of Assistance||One-Year Objective||Units||HHs|
|H||ELI/LI Large Renter HHs, Senior Renters, Persons w/Special Needs, Homeless||Rental Assistance||vouchers/certificates||195|
|H||ELI/LI/MOD Large HHs Renters||new construction, rehab; w/ support facilities & services||new construction
|H||ELI/LI/MOD Large HHs Renters||acquisition & rehab; w/support facilities & services||see rehab||-|
|H, M, L||ELI/LI/MOD Small HHs Renters||rehab; new construction||acquisition/rehab
|M, L||ELI/LI/MOD Seniors||new construction, rehab; w/ support facilities & services||new construction||100||-|
|H, M||ELI/LI/MOD Existing Homeowner and Renter HHs||rehab, new construction (replacement)||rehabilitation
|H||Homeless||acquisition/rehab w/support facilities & services||large and small households||280 beds||-|
|H, M||ELI/LI/MOD Other HHs & Special Needs Groups||rehabilitation, new construction w/support services||acquisition/rehab
|M, L||ELI/LI/MOD 1st-time Buyers w/Children||mortgage assistance||new construction
see also MCC objectives
|M, L||ELI/LI/MOD Other Buyers||rehabilitation & homebuyer assistance||see MCC objectives||-|
|NA||MIDDLE First-time Homebuyers||New construction; MCC &/or mortgage assistance||new construction
|NA||MIDDLE Existing Homeowner and Renter HHs||rehabilitation, new construction (replacement)||rehabilitation, including replacement||0|
new or acquis/rehab
|ELI=0-30% of median
LI=31-50% of median
|MOD=51-63% of median
MIDDLE=63-100% of median
CDBG -- It is expected that funding in the amount of $15,359,000 will be available in 1995-96 consisting of $13,453,000 from the City's 1995 Entitlement grant, $1,197,000 in projected 1995 program income, and $709,000 in other prior year funds. The following section outlines the City Administration's recommendation on projects proposed to be implemented with the funds available in 1995-96. During this one year period, the City proposes to utilize 100% of these funds to serve low and moderate-income persons. Funding is proposed in two categories: Contractual Community Services and Community Development Improvements.
Contractual Community Services -- includes public service and fair housing projects administered by community based organizations. All projects serve low and moderate-income persons on a City-wide basis except as noted.
Community Development Improvements (CDI)-- includes housing rehabilitation, capital improvements, code enforcement and small business assistance programs administered by community based organization and the City of San José. All projects serve low and moderate- income persons and are City-wide unless noted.
Map 2 shows points of interest and the location of the low and moderate income areas (51% of the population have incomes below 80% of the median income) within the City.
Map 3 shows the low income areas and the Hispanic populations.
Map 4 shows the low income areas and unemployment percentages in the City.
Finally, Map 5 and Map 6 show some of the low income neighborhoods in the City, levels of unemployment, and where various projects that were funded and covered by the Consolidated Plan are located.